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would one day claim, and, if nobody much believed in the constitutional shams of Augustus’s day, the example of his constitutional monarchy was to prove potent at a much later period.

The age of the city-state was at last drawing to a close. The emperor Caracalla (died 217) extended Roman citizenship to all subjects of the empire so that he could tax them more heavily. The demands of the imperial administration began to bankrupt the cities, which had previously prospered as the local organs of government under Rome. New barbarian attacks threw the empire onto the defensive, and in 410 ce the city of Rome itself was captured and sacked by the Visigoths . About 65 years later the last Roman emperor in the West was deposed, and thenceforward the caesars reigned only in Constantinople and the East.

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For thousands of years governments have tried to control spending by employing sumptuary laws. The first such law under the Roman Republic, the Lex Oppia, was enacted in 215 ;…
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By its very nature, the democratic process spurs citizens to form opinions on a number of issues. Voters are called upon to choose candidates in elections, to consider constitutional amendments, and to approve or reject municipal taxes and other legislative proposals. Almost any matter…
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Preventing Bloodstream Infections Linked to Central Lines (Catheters)

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When a patient is in the hospital, he or she often needs to be given medicines or fluids or have blood. Sometimes this is done through a central line or catheter. A central line is a tube that is put into a large vein, usually in the neck, chest, arm or groin. The line may be left in place for several weeks. The risk of infection increases with the increased duration of time a central line is in place.

If bacteria or other germs get into a central line, they can enter the bloodstream and cause an infection. Signs of such an infection may include fevers and chills. Sometimes, the area around where the tube has been inserted into the vein becomes red or sore.

These types of infections are serious. They often can be treated successfully with antibiotics and removal of the central line.

At Cedars-Sinai, many precautions are taken to prevent central line associated bloodstream infections, including:

As part of its commitment to improving the quality of care given to patients at Cedars-Sinai, the rate of central line infections is monitored carefully.

California hospitals are required to report these infections to the Stuart Weitzman Rapture 75 suede ankle boots cheap lowest price JDvtnL
and the National Healthcare Safety Network, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The California department is required to adjust the data for risk factors according to the federal network's protocols. The risk adjustment methodology uses national data to compare the actual number of infections to the expected number, based on the age and health of the surgery patients.

The chart below shows the rate of central line-linked bloodstream infections that occurred in patients in the Adult Intensive Care Units at Cedars-Sinai vs. the expected number.

What Is the Standardized Infection Ratio?

The standardized infection ratio is a summary measure used to track infections at a national, state or local level over time. The ratio compares the actual number of infections reported to what would be predicted, adjusting for risk factors that have been found to be significantly associated with differences in infection incidence. A lower number is better. Impact onStandardized Infection Ratios After 2015 Rebaselining

The National Healthcare Safety Network instituted the new 2015 baseline time period for the number predicted calculation. The data included in the 2015 baseline will serve as a new reference point for comparing progress. CDC expects that hospital standardized infection ratios will increase and shift closer to 1. This shift reflects nationwide improvement in infection prevention from the previous baseline time period.

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